Senin, 31 Mei 2010

Sustainable Agriculture

Eric Lichtfouse, Mireille Navarrete, Philippe Debaeke, Souchere VĂ©ronique, Caroline Alberola, "Sustainable Agriculture"
Springer | 2009-12-15 | ISBN: 9048126657 | 919 pages | PDF | 16,6 MB

Sustainability rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Starving people in poor nations, obesity in rich nations, increasing food prices, on-going climate changes, increasing fuel and transportation costs, flaws of the global market, worldwide pesticide pollution, pest adaptation and resistance, loss of soil fertility and organic carbon, soil erosion, decreasing biodiversity, desertification, and so on. Despite unprecedented advances in sciences allowing to visit planets and disclose subatomic particles, serious terrestrial issues about food show clearly that conventional agriculture is not suited any longer to feed humans and to preserve ecosystems. Sustainable agriculture is an alternative for solving fundamental and applied issues related to food production in an ecological way. While conventional agriculture is driven almost solely by productivity and profit, sustainable agriculture integrates biological, chemical, physical, ecological, economic and social sciences in a comprehensive way to develop new farming practices that are safe and do not degrade our environment. In that respect, sustainable agriculture is not a classical and narrow science. Instead of solving problems using the classical painkiller approach that treats only negative impacts, sustainable agriculture treats problem sources. As most actual society issues are now intertwined, global, and fast-developing, sustainable agriculture will bring solutions to build a safer world.

This book gathers review articles that analyze current agricultural issues and knowledge, then propose alternative solutions. It will therefore help all scientists, decision-makers, professors, farmers and politicians who wish to build a safe agriculture, energy and food system for future generations.

Insect Pest Management and Ecological Research


Insect Pest Management and Ecological Research
Cambridge University Press | ISBN: 0521800625 | 2003-04-14 | PDF | 400 pages | 2 Mb

This study shows how to navigate the diversity of options presented in current ecological theory by developing the first general model of the entomological research requirements of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The book includes practical advice on understanding and investigating species; examines the ecological problems associated with polyphagous pests and beneficial species; and scrutinizes ways suggested to improve insect biological control. It is an important resource for graduate students and researchers in IPM, insect pest management, entomology, ecology and crop protection.

• Examines how information is best obtained for the applied science of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • Provides first model relating insect ecology research needs to the structure of IPM systems, allowing more effective research and pest control practice • Provides practical help and case studies as well as principles and theory

Light Sensing in Plants

M. Wada, K. Shimazaki, M. Iino, "Light Sensing in Plants"
Springer; 1 edition (April 7, 2005) | English | 4431240020 | 370 pages | PDF | 2.25 MB

Plants utilize light not only for photosynthesis but also as environmental signals. They are capable of perceiving wavelength, intensity, direction, duration, and other attributes of light to perform appropriate physiological and developmental changes. This volume presents overviews of and the latest findings in many of the interconnected aspects of plant photomorphogenesis, including photoreceptors (phytochromes, cryptochromes, and phototropins), signal transduction, photoperiodism, and circadian rhythms, in 42 chapters. Also included, is a prologue by Prof. Masaki Furuya that gives an overview of the historical background. With contributions from preeminent researchers in specific subjects from around the world, this book will be a valuable source for a range of scientists from undergraduate to professional levels. 

Viral Transport in Plants (Plant Cell Monographs)

Elisabeth Waigmann, Manfred Heinlein, "Viral Transport in Plants (Plant Cell Monographs)"
Springer; 1 edition (June 11, 2007) | English | 3540698426 | 188 pages | PDF | 2.08 MB

Intercellular communication in plants plays pivotal roles in coordination and control of development and defence responses and involves the trafficking of RNA and protein macromolecules through cytoplasmic cell wall channels termed plasmodesmata. Viruses pirate this existing macromolecular transport pathway to spread infection and, therefore, represent important tools to investigate the cellular mechanisms that govern intercellular communication. The book provides a state of the art overview of the intricate functional virus:host relationships that allow a virus or viroid to move cell-to-cell and systemically through the plant, as well as from plant to plant, and, thus, to spread infection. The book also illustrates the mechanisms by which viruses overcome plant defence responses, such as RNA silencing. Arabidopsis is introduced as a plant host eminently suitable for genetic approaches to identify novel players in plant:virus interactions.

Sabtu, 29 Mei 2010

Coffee Pests and their Management

The perennial and evergreen nature of the coffee plant (Coffea spp.) favors attack by a number of insects and mites . All portions of the plants are susceptible to attack, and damage may appear at the seed bed, nursery, plantation, or in the warehouse. Certain pests affect the coffee plant only temporarily, while others live for several generations on the plant. In some instances, the attack may cause the death of the plant, but in most cases the pests only weaken the plant, reducing yield. When the bean is attacked, quality also may be affected.
 

A manual of diseases of tropical acacias in Australia, South-East Asia and India

Acacias are of considerable social and industrial importance for tropical reforestation, with about 2 million ha worldwide. The last few decades have seen a major expansion of plantations for industrial use, especially in South-East Asia. Both native and exotic species of Acacia are also widely grown in the Indian sub-continent. Turnbull et al. (1998) reviewed the status of tropical acacia plantations in Asia. The species which have been most widely planted so far in industrial plantations in South-East Asia are Acacia mangium Willd. and A. auriculiformis Cunn. ex Benth. A. crassicarpa Cunn. ex Benth. and A. aulacocarpa Cunn. ex Benth. provenance and species trials have been established in many locations throughout the region to provide options for future hardwood plantations. Commercial plantings of A. crassicarpa have recently been established in Indonesia.
 

PENYAKIT KARAT PURU PADA SENGON (Paraserianthes falcataria)

Penyakit karat puru menyerang mulai dari bibit, tanaman muda dan tegakan di lapangan yang mengakibatkan pertumbuhan tanaman terhambat, bahkan mematikan tanaman sehingga terjadi kegagalan penanaman. Hal ini merupakan suatu masalah yang perlu mendapat perhatian yang serius, karena menimbulkan kerugian secara ekonomi. Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut maka disusunlah booklet ini untuk membantu para pengelola hutan tanaman Sengon di lapangan dalam mendiagnosis, mencegah dalam mengendalikan serangan penyakit Karat Puru. Harapan kami dengan informasi yang tersaji dalam booklet ini, para pengelola hutan tanaman Sengon lebih waspada terhadap ancaman penyakit Karat Puru.

Pollen Biotechnology for Crop Production and Improvement

Pollen Biotechnology for Crop Production and Improvement
Cambridge University Press | ISBN: 052147180X | 1997-04-13 | PDF | 464 pages | 16 Mb

Our knowledge of pollen, the gold dust that carries the male germ line of flowering plants and is vital for sexual reproduction and seed formation, has "come of age" with the publication of this book. Here, for the first time in a single volume, are all the ideas and techniques developed in the past two decades concerning the manipulation of pollen and pollen tubes in plant breeding and biotechnology. Pollen has never been an easy topic to come to grips with, with its variable and often inexplicable terminology that has made it a more difficult field in which to work. This book will remedy that, with its overview of pollen biology and pollen-pistil interactions that explains terms and concepts of the male function of pollen in a way that is readily understandable to the student and professional plant scientist and plant breeder.
 
http://www.megaupload.com/?d=PHYHNKKD

Bioremediation: Principles and Applications

Ronald L. Crawford, Don L. Crawford, "Bioremediation: Principles and Applications"
Cambridge University Press | 1997 | ISBN: 0521470412, 052101915X | 412 pages | PDF | 10,4 MB

Industrial and agricultural activity throughout this century has led to considerable contamination of soil and groundwater resources by hazardous chemicals. The technique of bioremediation uses living organisms usually bacteria and fungi--to remove pollutants from soil and water with minimal disturbance to these environments. This approach, which is potentially more cost-effective than traditional techniques such as incineration of soils and carbon filtration of water, requires an understanding of how organisms transform chemicals, how they survive in polluted environments, and how they can be used in the field. This book examines these issues for many of the most serious and common environmental contaminants, presenting the most recent position on the application of bio-remediation to polluted soil and water.
 
http://www.megaupload.com/?d=1509IFA3

Tomato Plant Culture

J. Benton Jones Jr. - Tomato Plant Culture: In the Field, Greenhouse, and Home Garden, Second Edition
Publisher: CRC | 2007-08-03 | ISBN: 0849373956 | PDF | 404 pages | 10.93 MB

While tomatoes continue to be one of the most widely grown plants, the production and distribution of tomato fruits have been changing worldwide. Smaller, flavorful tomatoes are becoming more popular than beefsteak tomatoes, greenhouse-grown tomatoes have entered the marketplace, and home gardeners are using the Internet to obtain information for growing tomatoes. Encompassing these changes, Tomato Plant Culture: In the Field, Greenhouse, and Home Garden, Second Edition clearly presents the characteristics, nutritional information, environmental requirements, and production aspects of tomato plants and fruits. Authored by one of the foremost experts in hydroponics, the book outlines the history of the tomato plant and fruit and delves into the author's personal experiences with tomato plant cultivation. It discusses the characteristics and composition of the plant as well as seedling and seed production. The author elucidates the physical features of the fruit and the mineral nutrition of the plant. He also examines the physical and chemical characteristics of soils most desirable for plant growth, makes fertilizer recommendations, and explores the factors involved in greenhouse tomato production. In addition, the book looks at ways to identify and control plant diseases and insect pests. With scientific data, trivia, and troubleshooting advice, this technical yet accessible book enables scientists, commercial growers, and home gardeners to cultivate a successful crop of tomatoes.

http://www.megaupload.com/?d=GQ9GPI5N

Molecular Model Systems in the Lepidoptera

Molecular Model Systems in the Lepidoptera
Publisher: University | ISBN: 0521402492 | edition 1995 | PDF | 556 pages | 16,6 mb

The contributors present a diverse collection of chapters on basic research at the molecular level using Lepidoptera as model systems. This volume, however, is more than just a compendium of information about insect systems in general, or the Lepidoptera in particular. Each chapter is a self-contained treatment of a broad subject area, pring sufficient background information to give readers a sense of the guiding principles and central questions associated with each topic, in addition to major methodologies and findings. Comparisons with other major model systems are emphasized, with special attention given to the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Topics include: an historical overview of research using Lepidopteran models, silkworm genetics, mobile elements of Lepidopteran genomes, experimental embryogenesis and homeotic genes, hormone action in the central nervous system, the molecular genetics of moth olfaction, and use of engineered baculoviruses for basic biological studies and insect pest control.

http://www.megaupload.com/?d=XBYZSQGS

Kamis, 27 Mei 2010

Musuh alami dan hama pada kapas

Buku ini dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan pemahaman petani dan pembaca lainnya mengenai agro-ekosistem kapas. Buku ini belum sempurna, sekalipun begitu isinya telah diperiksa dan diperbaiki oleh beberapa ahli hama dan musuh alami kapas. Walaupun demikian masukan dari semua pihak demi peningkatan kualitas buku ini akan sangat kami hargai. Selain penyajian berdasarkan ordo dan famili serangga, buku ini juga menjelaskan perilaku sebagai satu unsur informasi yang penting sekali. Susunan halamannya di desain khusus sehingga memungkinkan untuk melihat semua keterangan penting sekaligus pada satu halaman.
 

MUSUH ALAMI, HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TANAMAN KAKAO

Buku ini dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan pemahaman petani dan pembaca lainnya mengenai agro-ekosistem kopi menuju terlaksananya 4 prinsip dasar PHT: (a) budidaya tanaman sehat, (b) melestarikan musuh alami, (c) pengamatan sekali per minggu, dan (d) petani menjadi ahli PHT. Buku ini belum sempurna, sekalipun begitu isinya telah diperiksa dan diperbaiki oleh beberapa ahli penyakit, hama dan musuh alaminya pada kopi. Walaupun demikian masukan dari semua pihak demi peningkatan kualitas buku ini akan sangat kami hargai. Selain penyajian berdasarkan Ordo dan Famili serangga, buku ini juga menjelaskan perilaku sebagai satu unsur informasi yang penting sekali.
 

Rabu, 26 Mei 2010

MUSUH ALAMI, HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TANAMAN KOPI

Buku ini dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan pemahaman petani dan pembaca lainnya mengenai agro-ekosistem kopi menuju terlaksananya 4 prinsip dasar PHT yaitu: (a) budidaya tanaman sehat, (b) melestarikan musuh alami, (c) pengamatan sekali per minggu, dan (d) petani menjadi ahli PHT. Buku ini belum sempurna, sekalipun begitu isinya telah diperiksa dan diperbaiki oleh beberapa ahli penyakit, hama dan musuh alaminya pada kopi. Walaupun demikian masukan dari semua pihak demi peningkatan kualitas buku ini akan sangat kami hargai. Selain penyajian berdasarkan Ordo dan Famili serangga, buku ini juga menjelaskan perilaku sebagai satu unsur informasi yang penting sekali.
 

Selasa, 25 Mei 2010

Non-chemical Pest Management in Peanut Production

This field guide is designed to let you grow peanut as easy as possible.
It provides you the suggested appropriate management practices on how to grow peanut. In the pest pages, each pest has a brief description of its lifecycle, damage it causes, and its control measures. It is very important to know how the insect/mite pest develops because the adult does not always cause the damage and sometimes it is not even found where the damage occurred. Included in the control measures are cultural practices, physical control, plant extracts, other homemade solutions, and other practical methods. Also, as not to confuse you with the beneficial insects, a separate page with photos of them and their conservation and management are included.
 

Role of Ants in Pest Management


Ants, with an estimated world population of 1015 adults (188), are most abundant in the tropics where in rain forests they may represent between one third and half of the insect biomass (32). About two hundred species of ants have been recorded in one locality in Papua New Guinea (187), and they also retain rich diversity in some tropical crops (76, 134). In general, ants are less commonw, ith fewer species, outside the tropics (120, 187), but they mays till be ecologically important, as in a European grassland where about 140 workers per m2 consumed approximately 200 times their biomass annually (71). Theya re usually least commoann d diverse in disturbed arable habitats (120).
 

Senin, 24 Mei 2010

Insect Pests and Diseases in Indonesian Forests




buku tentang Hama-hama Tanaman Kayu di indonesia. bagus neh, baru baca sedikit aja dah langsung tertarik.

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Penggerek Buah Kakao

Referensi untuk penanggulangan Conopomorpha cramerela pada buah kakao. Baca deh, berguna banget...!

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Budi daya Kedelai

Kedelai merupakan bahan baku makanan yang bergizi seperti tahu dan tempe. Hampir semua lapisan masyarakat menyukai makanan yang terbuat dari kedelai. Bagi petani, tanaman ini penting untuk menambah pendapatan karena dapat segera dijual dan harganya tinggi. Tanaman ini dapat diusahakan di lahan pasang surut. Hasilnya cukup memadai, namun cara mengusahakannya berbeda daripada di lahan sawah irigasi dan lahan kering. Tanaman ini tidak tahan genangan. Oleh sebab itu, tidak dianjurkan menanam kedelai di lahan pasang surut yang bertipe luapan air A yang selalu terluapi baik saat pasang besar maupun pasang kecil.
 

Musuh Alami, Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman Teh

Buku ini dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan pemahaman petani dan pembaca lainnya mengenai agro-ekosistem teh menuju terlaksananya 4 prinsip dasar PHT yaitu: (a) budidaya tanaman sehat, (b) melestarikan musuh alami, (c) pengamatan sekali per minggu, dan (d) petani menjadi ahli PHT. Buku ini belum sempurna, sekalipun begitu isinya telah diperiksa dan diperbaiki oleh beberapa ahli penyakit, hama dan musuh alami pada teh. Walaupun demikian masukan dari semua pihak demi peningkatan kualitas buku ini akan sangat kami hargai. Selain penyajian berdasarkan Ordo dan Famili serangga, buku ini juga menjelaskan perilaku sebagai satu unsur informasi yang penting sekali.

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Transgenic Crop Plants : Utilization and Biosafety

Transgenic Crop Plants: Volume 2: Utilization and Biosafety
Springer | ISBN: 079109491X | 2010-02-01 | PDF | 494 pages | 8 Mb
Development of transgenic crop plants, their utilization for improved agriculture, health, ecology and environment and their socio-political impacts are currently important fields in education, research and industries and also of interest to policy makers, social activists and regulatory and funding agencies. This work prepared with a class-room approach on this multidisciplinary subject will fill an existing gap and meet the requirements of such a broad section of readers.

Volume 2 with 13 chapters contributed by 41 eminent scientists from nine countries deliberates on the utilization of transgenic crops for resistance to herbicides, biotic stress and abiotic stress, manipulation of developmental traits, production of biofuel, biopharmaceuticals and algal bioproducts, amelioration of ecology and environment and fostering functional genomics as well as on regulations and steps for commercialization, patent and IPR issues, and compliance to concerns and compulsions of utilizing transgenic plants.

http://www.megaupload.com/?d=ZMTOQ8N6

Pass : tFtra3642048110.rar

Jumat, 21 Mei 2010

Mengenal Jenis Kopi Kelas Dunia

Jangan mengaku sebagai penikmat kopi kalau Anda belum mengenal jenis-jenis kopi dan penyajiannya, lalu seperti apa memilih kopi yang baik, aroma kopi yang segar, ataupun cara penyajiannya. Berikut tips yang diberikan oleh dr Surip Mawardi, ahli kopi yang sudah berpengalaman selama 27 tahun, dan tergabung di Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia, dalam peluncuran Nescafe Teknologi ERA di 3 Degree - F Cone, FX Lifestyle X'center, Jakarta, Senin (8/2/2010).

1. Kopi arabika (arabica coffee)
Kopi yang berasal dari Brasil dan Etiopia ini menguasai 70 persen pasar kopi dunia. Kopi arabika memiliki banyak varietas, tergantung negara, iklim, dan tanah tempat kopi ditanam. Anda bisa menemukan kopi toraja, mandailing, kolumbia, brasilia, dan lain sebagainya. Antara kopi arabika yang satu dan yang lain punya perbedaan rasa.

Berikut ciri-ciri kopi arabika:
*Aromanya wangi sedap mirip percampuran bunga dan buah. Hidup di daerah yang sejuk dan dingin.
* Memiliki rasa asam yang tidak dimiliki oleh kopi jenis robusta.
* Memiliki bodi atau rasa kental saat disesap di mulut.
* Rasa kopi arabika lebih mild atau halus.
* Kopi arabika juga terkenal pahit.
* Harganya sekitar Rp 32.000 per kg.

2. Kopi robusta
Menguasai 30 persen pasar dunia. Kopi ini tersebar di luar Kolumbia, seperti di Indonesia dan Filipina. Sama seperti arabika, kondisi tanah, iklim, dan proses pengemasan kopi ini akan berbeda untuk setiap negara dan menghasilkan rasa yang sedikit banyak juga berbeda.

Ciri-ciri kopi robusta:
* Memiliki rasa yang lebih seperti cokelat.
* Bau yang dihasilkan khas dan manis.
* Warnanya bervariasi sesuai dengan cara pengolahan.
* Memiliki tekstur yang lebih kasar dari arabika.
* Harganya sekitar Rp 18.000 per kg.

3. Kopi ekselsa, racemosa, dan liberica (african coffee)
Merupakan jenis kopi yang berada di antara arabika dan robusta. Kopi tersebut saat ini masih dalam tahap pengembangan.

4. Kopi luwak
Merupakan kopi yang berasal dari biji kopi arabika atau robusta yang dimakan oleh luwak. Luwak akan menelan buah kopi (berwarna merah) dan memprosesnya dengan enzim yang ada di perutnya. Biji dari buah kopi itu lalu terbuang bersama kotorannya.

''Biji inilah yang dinamakan kopi luwak. Kita masih meneliti enzim yang ada di perut luwak yang membuat kopi ini jadi lebih sedap,'' tutur dr Surip kepada Kompas Female.

Kopi luwak dihargai sekitar Rp 350.000, bahkan lebih, tergantung jenis kopi yang dimakan luwak. Kopi luwak menjadi lebih istimewa karena luwak mencari buah kopi yang 90 persen matang. Ia tidak melihat warna, tetapi menggunakan daya penciuman yang tajam dan selalu mencari kopi pada malam hari. Dalam satu pohon kopi, hanya 1-2 butir buah yang dimakan. Dengan begitu, kopi yang diambil oleh luwak adalah kopi dengan nilai kematangan tertinggi, yang tentunya amat berpengaruh pada rasa kopi nantinya.

Apa pun jenis kopi yang ada, proses penyortiran hingga pengemasannya amat berpengaruh pada rasa kopi. Misalnya, kopi yang tercampur dengan tanah, daun, ranting, dan benda lainnya yang ikut terbawa saat pemetikan dan penjemuran kopi akan mempengaruhi cita rasa kopi.

'Menilai kopi yang enak tidak bisa sekadar dari fisik sebab, jika fisiknya bagus tapi terkadang berlubang atau saat penjemuran terkena air hujan, maka itu akan membuat aroma dan rasa kopi menurun,'' ungkap dr Surip.
 
http://sains.kompas.com/read/2010/02/09/1703067/Mengenal.Jenis.Kopi.Kelas.Dunia

Kamis, 20 Mei 2010

Kopi Luwak Probiotik, Apa Itu?

Seorang peneliti di Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian atau BPTP Bali, Suprio Guntoro, menemukan kopi luwak probiotik. Selain jumlah produksi bubuk kopi tidak terbatas, kopi luwak probiotik dipercaya akan melindungi populasi luwak.

Pada proses produksi kopi luwak secara alami, bubuk kopi diperoleh dari biji kopi yang digiling setelah dijemur dan disangrai. Uniknya, biji kopi itu sebelumnya diperoleh lewat proses pencernaan alami binatang luwak (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) yang memakan buah kopi. Sementara itu, pada kopi luwak probiotik temuan Guntoro, biji kopi dihasilkan dari buah kopi matang yang dipetik dan dipilih, lalu difermentasikan secara khusus dengan mikroba probiotik dari usus halus dan usus buntu binatang luwak.

"Jadi, kopi luwak probiotik ini dihasilkan dengan mengadopsi proses pencernaan binatang luwak. Mikroba probiotik itu adalah hasil dari isolasi mikroba di usus halus dan usus buntu luwak. Mikroba probiotik itu kami pastikan tidak mengandung mikroba yang bersifat patogen atau penyakit," kata Guntoro saat ditemui di rumahnya di Denpasar, Selasa (11/5/2010). Dia memastikan proses isolasi mikroba itu dilakukan dengan bahan alami alias tanpa melibatkan bahan-bahan kimia.

Dengan demikian, lewat kopi luwak probiotik ini, kopi luwak dapat diproduksi berdasar kebutuhan dan tidak terbatas pada jumlah luwak atau kemampuan konsumsi luwak sebagaimana pada umumnya. Bubuk kopi luwak pada umumnya berharga relatif mahal, yakni Rp 1 juta-Rp 1,5 juta per kilogram. Kopi luwak juga menjadi andalan ekspor kopi bagi Indonesia.

"Dari hasil penelitian saya, kopi luwak probiotik juga melindungi populasi binatang luwak itu sendiri. Karena besarnya permintaan pada kopi luwak, pada umumnya kopi itu dihasilkan dengan cara menernakkan binatang luwak. Sekitar 10-30 persen dari luwak yang diternakkan itu mati atau lepas sehingga pasti akan memengaruhi populasinya," kata Guntoro.

Menurut Guntoro, dari segi rasa dan kenikmatannya, kopi luwak probiotik ini juga hampir sama dengan kopi luwak yang dihasilkan secara normal. Bahkan, dari pengakuan para penikmat kopi, cita rasa kopi luwak probiotik ini lebih lembut tetapi memiliki aroma kopi yang lebih kuat.

Guntoro mengaku, penelitian atas kopi luwak itu dilakukan secara swadaya sejak tiga tahun silam. Saat ini penemuan itu sedang dalam proses pematenan yang didaftarkan melalui Balai Pengelola Alih Teknologi Pertanian di Bogor yang berada di bawah koordinasi Badan Litbang Pertanian Kementerian Pertanian. Bersamaan dengan proses itu, Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao, Jember, Jawa Timur, juga melakukan pengujian atas data ilmiah penelitian Guntoro.
 
http://sains.kompas.com/read/2010/05/11/18033691/Kopi.Luwak.Probiotik..Apa.Itu-14

PTPN XII : Budidaya Luwak Genjot Produktivitas Kopi

SURABAYA - Warta Indonesia : PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN) XII (Persero) perusahaan agribisnis yang sudah terintegrasi, berupaya meningkatkan kapasitas produksi uniknya yakni, kopi luwak. Pasalnya, kopi luwak adalah kopi yang hanya dipilih dan dimakan oleh binatang luwak (Paradoxorus hermaproditus) atau dikenal juga sebagai musang dan rase pada beberapa daerah.
Luwak memilih buah kopi yang mempunyai tingkat kematangan yang optimum berdasarkan rasa dan aroma serta memakannya dengan mengupas kulit luarnya dengan mulut, lalu menelan lendir serta bijinya. Biji kopi yang masih terbungkus kulit ari yang keras (kulit tanduk/parchment) tidak hancur dalam pencernaan luwak karena system pencernaan luwak yang sederhana. Sehingga saat keluar bersama feses biji kopi masih utuh terbungkus kulit tanduk.

Dengan keunikannya ini, maka kopi luwak hanya bisa diproduksi secara tradisional dengan cara membudidayakan binatang luwak di daerah tertentu saja. Artinya, volume produksi kopi ini tidak bisa ditingkat secara masal tanpa proses pembudidayaan luwak. Oleh karena itu suplly kopi luwak hingga saat ini masih sangat terbatas.

''Jika dibanding demandnya tentu tidak akan seimbang. Melalui budi daya luwak diharapkan volume produksinya bisa ditingkatkan. Saat ini kami hanya membudidayakan sekitar 200 ekor luwak di kawasan Gunung Ijen Banyuwangi,'' ungkap Direktur PTPN XII Nurhidayat usai meresmikan Rollaas Coffe and Tea cafe di Surabaya, Rabu (12/5).

Menurutnya, saat ini volume produksi kopi luwak PTPN XII hanya mampu 2 ton per tahun. Padahal, berdasarkan permintaan satu perusahaan multi nasional saja, kebutuhan kopi luwak dunia saat ini sebanyak 8 ton per tahun.

''Dari volume produksi kopi luwak PTPN XII selama ini sekitar 1,6 ton untuk konsumsi domestik dan sisanya 0,4 ton untuk pasar ekspor ke berbagai negara, diantaranya Rumania, Jerman, Korea, Jepang dan Kanada," ujar Nur.

Sementara harga kopi luwak di tingkat dunia saat ini menurut Direktur Pemasaran PTPN XII, Sugeng Budiraharjo mencapai Rp1,9 juta per kilogram untuk biji kopi yang sudah disangrai, dan sebesar Rp2 juta per kilogram untuk kopi luwak bubuk. Sementara harga biji kopi luwak yang masih mentah mencapai Rp1 juta hingga 1,3 juta per kilogram.
Saat ini, ungkap Danu, produksi kopi luwak PTPN XII hanya mencapai 2 ton pertahun. 80% atau sekitar 1,6 ton untuk konsumsi dalam negeri dan sisanya sebesar 0,4 ton diekspor ke berbagai negara, diantaranya Rumania, Jerman, Korea, Jepang dan Kanada.
Sementara harga kopi luwak tingkat dunia saat ini mencapai Rp1,9 juta per kilogram untuk biji kopi yang sudah disangrai, dan sebesar Rp2 juta per kilogram untuk kopi luwak bubuk. Sedangkan harga biji kopi luwak yang masih mentah mencapai Rp1 juta hingga 1,3 juta per kilogram. (ciq) 
 
taken from http://www.ptpn12.com
 

Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed Fungi: Morphologies of Cultured Fungi and Key to Species, Second Edition

Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed Fungi: Morphologies of Cultured Fungi and Key to Species, Second Edition
Publisher: CRC Press | ISBN: 0849311187 | edition 2002 | PDF | 504 pages | 22,4 mb

Fungi have come into demand as sources of biological control agents and of particular physiological active substances. Recent studies indicate that fungi can be the prime cause of sinusitis, asthma, and allergenic troubles. Some fungi can be useful however, and can be used to improve the overall quality of human life. With very few books available on the subject of soil and seed fungi, Tsuneo Watanabe's book remains the only work that details information on techniques for isolating, culturing, and identifying soil and seed fungi.
http://www.megaupload.com/?d=LYPZIHLO

Selasa, 18 Mei 2010

NPS (Nematoda Patogen Serangga) Biopestisida

Dua genus nematoda patogen serangga (NPS), Steinernema dan Heterorhabditis, mempunyai beberapa keunggulan sebagai agensia pengendalian biologi serangga hama dibandingkan dengan musuh alami lain, yaitu daya bunuhnya sangat cepat, kisaran inangnya luas, aktif mencari inang sehingga efektif untuk mengendalikan serangga dalam jaringan, tidak menimbulkan resistensi, dan mudah diperbanyak.

Mekanisme Patogenisitas
Mekanisme patogenisitas NPS terjadi melalui simbiosis dengan bakteri patogen Xenorhabdus untuk Steinernema dan Photorhabdus untuk Heterorhabditis. Infeksi NPS dilakukan oleh stadium larva instar III atau juvenil infektif (JI) terjadi melalui mulut, anus, spirakel, atau penetrasi langsung membran intersegmental integumen yang lunak. Setelah mencapai haemocoel serangga, bakteri simbion yang dibawa akan dilepaskan ke dalam haemolim untuk berkembang biak dan memproduksi toksin yang mematikan serangga. NPS sendiri juga mampu menghasilkan toksin yang mematikan. Dua faktor ini yang menyebabkan NPS mempunyai daya bunuh yang sangat cepat. Serangga yang terinfeksi NPS dapat mati dalam waktu 24-48 jam setelah infeksi.
Cara Isolasi
NPS mudah diisolasi dari sampel tanah berpasir yang porositasnya tinggi. Sampel tanah di tempatkan dalam botol, kemudian diinfestasi dengan ulat lilin, ulat Hongkong (Tenebrio molitor), atau ulat bambu. Setelah diinkubasikan selama 5 hari, ulat akan mati terinfeksi oleh nematoda. Ulat yang mati terinfeksi Steinernema, tubuhnya tampak berwarna coklat muda, sedangkan yang terinfeksi Heterorhabditis berwarna coklat tua agak kemerah-merahan. Isolasi NPS dari tubuh ulat dilakukan dengan cara menempatkan ulat pada cawan petri yang beralaskan kertas saring basah. Dalam waktu 2–3 hari, NPS akan keluar dari tubuh serangga dan masuk ke dalam air di cawan yang lebih besar.

Cara Perbanyakan
Perbanyakan secara In Vivo Perbanyakan NPS secara in vivo dilakukan dengan menggunakan ulat Hongkong (T. molitor). Ulat Hongkong dimasukkan dalam bak plastik atau nampan yang dialasi dengan kertas saring atau kertas koran. Suspensi JI diinokulasikan secara merata pada kertas tersebut. Dalam waktu 7 hari, 80-90% ulat sudah terinfeksi oleh NPS. Ulat yang terinfeksi dipindahkan ke rak perangkap yang dialasi kain, kemudian ditempatkan dalam bak plastik yang berisi air. Setelah diinkubasikan selama 3-5 hari, JI NPS akan keluar dari serangga dan masuk ke dalam air. Satu gram ulat Hongkong bisa menghasilkan 65.000 JI. Perbanyakan secara In Vitro Perbanyakan secara in vitro dengan medium buatan sebenarnya lebih sulit dan rumit karena sangat tergantung pada biakan bakteri primer, tetapi lebih efisien untuk produksi skala besar atau komersial. Medium yang digunakan adalah bahan berprotein tinggi, seperti homogenat usus, ekstrak khamir, pepton, tepung kedelai, dan lain -lain. Perbanyakan bisa dilakukan di medium cair atau semi padat. Medium semi padat dengan spon paling umum digunakan karena porositasnya tinggi. Nutrisi untuk perbanyakan diresapkan ke dalam spon dengan perbandingan 12,5 : 1 (medium : spon, satuandalam berat). Spon dimasukkan dalam botol atau plastik tahan panas, kemudian disterilisasi. Setelah medium dingin, bakteri simbion fase primer diinokulasikan ke dalam medium. Bakteri dibiarkan berkembang biak selama 2-3 hari sebelum diinokulasi dengan JI. NPS dapat dipanen dua minggu kemudian. Setiap 1 g medium spon dapat menghasilkan 90.000 JI. Perbanyakan dengan medium cair dilakukan dalam bubble column fermentor untuk memberikan aerasi yang baik bagi perkembangan NPS.

Formulasi
JI diformulasikan menjadi biopestisida dalam bentuk cair atau butiran. Formulasi cair yang telah dikembangkan oleh Balitbio dikemas dalam spon yang praktis untuk digunakan, disimpan, dan ditransportasikan. Satu kemasan mengandung 200.000.000 JI. Formulasi butiran dikembangkan menggunakan bahan dasar alginat, tanah liat, atau tanah gambut. Ke dalam formulasi juga ditambahkan bahan aditif yang berfungsi sebagai surfactant, anti desikan, dan nutrient stimulan.

Aplikasi
Formulasi cair, butiran alginat, dan tanah liat diaplikasikan dengan teknik penyemprotan biasa setelah dilarutkan dalam air. Sedangkan formulasi tanah peat dengan cara ditabur. Biopestisida NPS diaplikasikan dengan dosis 109 JI/ha. Waktu aplikasi yang tepat adalah sore hari karena NPS sangat rentan terhadap kekeringan. Waktu satu malam cukup bagi NPS untuk menemukan dan menginfeksi inangnya.

Keefektifan
Biopestisida NPS telah terbukti efektif mengendalikan penggerek batang padi, hama lanas (Cylas formicarius), Lyriomyza, ulatgrayak (Spodoptera litura), penggerek tongkol jagung (Ostrinia furnacalis), ulat kantong, dan penggerek polong kedelai (Etiela zinkenella ).

PTPN XII buka Rollaas Coffee & Tea di TP Surabaya

SURABAYA, kabarbisnis.com: Setelah sukses membuka Rollaas Coffee & amp; Tea di pusat perbelanjaan City of Tomorrow (Cito), kini PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN) XII kembali membuka kafe yang sama di pusat perbelanjaan tertua dan teramai di Surabaya, Tunjungan Plaza Surabaya.

Berbeda dengan yang di Cito, Rollaas Coffee & Tea di TP ini terlihat sangat khas dengan taburan atribut kopi di berbagai sudut ruangannya. Mulai dari dinding dari kayu kopi, hiasan dinding dari gilingan kopi jaman Belanda sampai plat yang digunakan dalam proses produksi kopi juga terlihat berdiri menjadi dinding berlobang unik. Taburan biji kopi sangrai juga terlihat di sudut dinding dan di bawah bar.

''Semua bahan baku pembuatan kafe ini kami ambil dari perkebunan kami. Mulai dari kayu untuk kursinya, batu geranit untuk dinding dan beberapa bahan lain seperti plat baja hingga kayu kopi juga kami ambil dari perkebunan kami,'' kata Direktur Utama PTPN XII, Nur Hidayat usai pembukaan Rollaas Coffee & amp; Tea di Tunjungan Plaza Surabaya, Rabu malam (12/5/10).

Meski sebagian besar bahan baku pembuatan kafe unik ini menurut pengakuan Nur Hidayat diambil dari perkebunan dan pabrik milik PTPN XII, namun total inverstasi yang harus dikeluarkan masih cukup besar, mencapai sekitar Rp1,5 miliar.

''Ini karena kami ingin kafe ini beda dengan kafe lainnya. Disamping sebagai tempat bersantai dan tempat menikmati kopi, tempat ini juga bertujuan untuk mengedukasi masyarakat Indonesia, khususnya Surabaya tentang kopi dan berbagai produk yang dihasilkan PTPN XII,'' tambah Sales Manager Rollaas Coffee & amp; Tea, Anton.

Untuk target pendapatan, Manager Industri Hilir PTPN XII, Setyo Wuryanto mengungkapkan bahwa hingga akhir tahun 2010, pendapatan Rollaas Coffee & Tea TP ditargetkan mencapai Rp750 juta.

''Kalau di Cito, tahun kemarin sudah laba sekitar Rp200 juta. Jika ditambah dengan yang di TP ini, maka kami berharap laba tahun ini bisa meningkat dua kali lipat menjadi Rp400 juta,'' ungkap Setyo Wuryanto.

Disinggung tentang target pembukaan cabang ke tiga, Nur Hidayat mengungkapkan sebenarnya sudah banyak yang mengajukan penawaran untuk membuka kafe serupa di berbagai tempat, diantaranya Jakarta, Jogjakarta dan Bali. Namun untuk saat ini, PTPN XII memilih untuk lebih fokus mengurus yang sudah ada.

''Kalau ke dua kafe kami yang di Surabaya ini sudah ekstablis, kami akan melakukan ekspansi ke daerah lain. Bisa di Jakarta, di Bali atau Jogja karena penawaran sebenarnya sudah ada. Bahkan kami juga berancana untuk mewaralabakan jika sudah mapan,'' tekan Nur Hidayat.

Senin, 17 Mei 2010

The Biology of Citrus

The Biology of Citrus (The Biology of Horticultural Crops)
Cambridge University Press | 1996-08-28 | ISBN: 0521333210 | PDF | 12 Mb | 244 pages

This book provides a concise and comprehensive discussion of all major developmental, genetic and horticultural aspects of citriculture in an easily readable text. It covers the history, distribution and climatic adaptation of the crop, followed by taxonomy and systematic, including a horticultural classification of edible citrus species. Subsequent chapters cover tree structure and function, reproductive physiology, including flowering, fruiting, productivity, ripening, post harvest and fruit constituents. This valuable reference for professionals and advanced students also covers the main aspects of cultivated citrus, such as roots tocks, irrigation, pests, viruses and diseases, as well as genetic improvement, including the use of tissue culture and plant biotechnology. Contains many original illustrations specially produced for the book.
http://www.megaupload.com/?d=5XPSRQIH

Selasa, 11 Mei 2010

Tea A Magazine - Spring 2010

Tea A Magazine - Spring 2010
PDF | 105 pages | 37.9 Mb | English
Tea A Magazine is a first consumer publication all about tea, both as a beverage and for its cultural significance in art, music, literature, history, health, and society.
 
http://hotfile.com/dl/41552659/fc0cb0c/050610.MAG.tea-a-2010-spring.rar.html

Chocolate Science and Technology

Chocolate Science and Technology
Wiley-Blackwell | 2010-05-03 | ISBN: 1405199067 | 296 pages | PDF | 8 MB

This book provides an overview of the science and technology of chocolate manufacture from cocoa production, through the manufacturing processes, to the sensory, nutrition and health aspects of chocolate consumption. It covers cocoa cultivation and production with special attention paid to cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption are also addressed.
There is a focus throughout on those factors that influence the flavour and quality characteristics of the finished chocolate and that provide scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is designed to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where food science is studied and researched.

* an overview of the science behind chocolate manufacture
* covers the whole process from cocoa production, through manufacturing, to the nutrition and health aspects of chocolate consumption
* focuses on factors that influence chocolate flavor and quality, and that provide scope for process optimization and improvement.


http://rapidshare.com/files/381703386/1405199067____Chocolate_Science_and_Technology.rar

Alcohol Fuel

Richard Freudenberger, "Alcohol Fuel: A Guide to Making and Using Ethanol as a Renewable Fuel "
New Society Publishers | 2009 | ISBN: 0865716269 | 288 pages | PDF | 3,5 MB

Dwindling petroleum supplies and growing environmental concerns are significantly impacting the cost of petro-fuel and its infrastructure. The search for alternative fuel sources has led to ethanol, a gasoline substitute that is already in the marketplace as Gasohol and E-85. But large-scale production of corn-based ethanol is controversial as it threatens the world’s food supply. There are alternatives, however: Brazil uses sugar cane, which is up to six times more productive in energy conversion.

After the energy crisis of the 1970s, there was a lot of misinformation about the cost of individual ethanol production. In order to achieve energy independence from gasoline, ethanol lends itself to small-scale production, and especially to cooperative ventures in rural communities, often using “waste” feedstock.

Alcohol Fuel is a practical, grassroots book that will give readers all the information they need, covering every aspect of making and using ethanol for fuel, including:

•Permitting and planning
•Budgeting and setup
•Sourcing feedstocks
•Finding and building distillation equipment
•Storage and safety
•Practical applications for converting motor vehicles, farm equipment, and space-heating systems
The practical, user-friendly information on basic equipment needs, fermentation recipes, and distillation designs will be of interest to readers looking for information, as well as to those ready to make the switch.
http://www.megaupload.com/?d=I1P98E50

Algae: Anatomy, Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Laura Barsanti, Paolo Gualtieri
Algae: Anatomy, Biochemistry and Biotechnology

CRC Press | 2005 | ISBN: 0849314674 | 320 pages | PDF | 10 Mb

An exhaustive review on all things algae would require a multi-volume encyclopedic work. Even then, such a tome would prove to be of limited value, as in addition to being quite complex, it would soon be outdated, as the field of phycology is full of continual revelations and new discoveries.

Algae: Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Biotechnology offers students and researchers in phycology a more practical and useful approach. Instead of trying to offer a little bit of everything, the authors concentrate on highlighting especially interesting and illuminating topics, with the idea of inciting the sort of wonder and curiosity in undergraduate and post-graduate students that will encourage further outstanding work.

The chapters can be read in progression to provide structure to a semester, or each can be read on its own as a self-contained essay to supplement other work.

http://rapidshare.com/files/382181416/algae.rar

Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants

Petra Marschner, "Marschner's Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, Second Edition"
Academic Press | 1995 | ISBN: 0124735436 | 889 pages | PDF | 54,8 MB

An understanding of the mineral nutrition of plants is of fundamental importance in both basic and applied plant sciences. The Second Edition of this book retains the aim of the first in presenting the principles of mineral nutrition in the light of current advances.
This volume retains the structure of the first edition, being divided into two parts: Nutritional Physiology and Soil-Plant Relationships. In Part I, more emphasis has been placed on root-shoot interactions, stress physiology, water relations, and functions of micronutrients. In view of the worldwide increasing interest in plant-soil interactions, Part II has been considerably altered and extended, particularly on the effects of external and interal factors on root growth and chapter 15 on the root-soil interface.
The second edition will be invaluable to both advanced students and researchers.

http://www.megaupload.com/?d=FR97HMGQ

Sustaining Our Soils and Society

Thomas E. Loynachan, Kirk W. Brown, Terence H. Cooper, Murray H. Milford - Sustaining Our Soils and Society
Publisher: American Geological Institute | 1999-03-01 | ISBN: 0922152500 | PDF | 66 pages | 17.27 MB

The booklet, Sustaining Our Soils and Society, and the colorful poster, Soils Sustain Life, offer new tools for raising awareness and understanding of our soil resources. The 64-page full-color booklet contains a copy of the poster which includes a student activity on the back. The soils booklet and poster can help you illustrate the importance of our soil resources; provide a geoscience perspective on soils and the environment; improve Earth science literacy; increase student understandings of Earth materials and systems; and achieve content objectives of the National Science Education Standards.
 
http://www.megaupload.com/?d=R6MEDGQE

Biofuels

Alan Scragg, "Biofuels"
CABI | 2009 | ISBN: 1845935926 | 256 pages | PDF | 1,5 MB

Providing the world's growing population with its increasing demands for energy is a major challenge for science, business and society alike. Energy can be generated from many sources, but not all sources are suitable for every application. Much of today's technology has been built on solid, liquid and gaseous fuels derived from fossil sources. However, the supply of these is finite and their combustion produces carbon dioxide, one of the gases responsible for global warming. Therefore, alternative sources of energy are required which are renewable, sustainable and carbon neutral.This textbook explores the production of biofuels as alternatives to fossil fuels, focusing on the technological issues that need to be addressed for any new fuel source. Each type of biofuel currently in production is considered in detail, covering the benefits and problems with production and use and the potential for biological material to provide sufficient energy for the world's population - the principles on which future fuel development are based.
http://www.megaupload.com/?d=ALMHID64

Sabtu, 08 Mei 2010

Biological Indicators of Soil Health

Biological Indicators of Soil Health
Publisher: CABI | ISBN: 0851991580 | edition 1997 | PDF | 464 pages | 24 mb

Soil scientists and consultants, those involved with soil health monitoring and maintenance and soil remediation. Also of interest to agronomists, ecologists and environmentalists. Maintaining soil health is fundamental to successful crop production and ecosystem sustainability. To enable effective management soil health must first be measured and then monitored and so the authors review and evaluate how soil organisms can be used to fulfill this role.

http://www.megaupload.com/?d=1ONSG2YQ

Insect Pathogens: Molecular Approaches and Techniques

Insect Pathogens: Molecular Approaches and Techniques
Publisher:CABI | 2009-05-15 | 1845934784 | PDF | 7 MB |

Investigation of insect pathogens is vital to the understanding of biocontrol and insect management within an ecosystem. Faster and more accurate methods of indentification and diagnosis have become possible with the implementation of molecular techniques. Advances in genomics and genetic engineering make this manual the most up to date handbook on insect pathogens, with the latest information on methods used to unravel the genomes of pathogens. The volume is divided into four sections: Indentification and Diagnostics, Evolutionary Relationships and Population Genetics, Genomics and Genetic Engineering. It is essential reading for those studying and researching at the forefront of molecular science and biological pest management.
 
http://rapidshare.com/files/236326613/Insect_Pathogens-Molecular_Approaches_and_Techniques.rar

Molecular Plant Pathology-Advanced Texts

Molecular Plant Pathology-Advanced Texts
BIOS Scientific Publ | ISBN:1859960448 | 2003-11-12 | PDF | 256 pages | 9.47 MB

The Advanced Text series is designed for students taking advanced-level courses, including final year undergraduates and taught MSc. Titles in this series will also be invaluable to researchers new to the field, and to established researchers as a basic reference text. Studies of the interactions between plants and their viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens are of major importance in plant and crop production. More than 10% of potential agricultural yield is lost to these organisms annually worldwide, and major epidemics can cause significant local economic and environmental damage. Molecular Plant Pathology addresses the underlying molecular principles of plant/pathogen interactions, in a readily-accessible textbook format.
 
http://rapidshare.com/files/239592707/Molecular_Plant_Pathology-Advanced_Text.rar

Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods

Rangaswamy Muniappan, Gadi V. P. Reddy, Anantanarayanan Raman "Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods"
Cambridge University Press | English | 2009-04-20 | ISBN: 0521877911 | 508 pages | PDF | 5,2 MB


Weeds are a major constraint to agricultural production, particularly in the developing world. Cost-efficient biological control is a self-sustaining way to reduce this problem, and produces fewer non-target effects than chemical methods, which can cause serious damage to the environment. This book covers the origin, distribution, and ecology of twenty model invasive weed species, which occur in habitats from tropical to temperate to aquatic. Sustainable biological control of each weed using one or more arthropods is discussed. The aim is to provide ecological management models for use across the tropical world, and to assist in the assessment of potential risks to native and economic plants. This is a valuable resource for scientists and policy makers concerned with the biological control of invasive tropical plants.
 
http://www.megaupload.com/?d=XO334RJO

Secrets to Great Soil

Secrets to Great Soil (Storey's Gardening Skills Illustrated) By Elizabeth Stell
Publisher: Storey Publishing, LLC 1998-01-02 | 224 Pages | ISBN: 1580170080 | PDF | 34.6 MB

Create productive soil anywhere with step-by-step instructions for making compost and fertilizers.
http://www.megaupload.com/?d=GK4K30LJ

Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis

Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis
Wiley-Blackwell | ISBN: 0632043210 | 2002-02 | PDF | 336 pages | 12 Mb

Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis stands as an ideal introduction to this subject. Robert Blankenship, a leading authority in photosynthesis research, offers a modern approach to photosynthesis in this accessible and well-illustrated text. The book provides a concise overview of the basic principles of energy storage and the history of the field, then progresses into more advanced topics such as electron transfer pathways, kinetics, genetic manipulations, and evolution. Throughout, Blankenship includes an interdisciplinary emphasis that makes this book appealing across fields.

http://rapidshare.com/files/114567981/synthe.rar

Potato: A History of the Propitious Esculent

John Reader "Potato: A History of the Propitious Esculent"
Yale University Press | English | 2009-03-17 | ISBN: 0300141092 | 336 pages | PDF | 2,3 MB


The potato—humble, lumpy, bland, familiar—is a decidedly unglamorous staple of the dinner table. Or is it? John Reader’s narrative on the role of the potato in world history suggests we may be underestimating this remarkable tuber. From domestication in Peru 8,000 years ago to its status today as the world’s fourth largest food crop, the potato has played a starring—or at least supporting—role in many chapters of human history. In this witty and engaging book, Reader opens our eyes to the power of the potato.

Whether embraced as the solution to hunger or wielded as a weapon of exploitation, blamed for famine and death or recognized for spurring progress, the potato has often changed the course of human events. Reader focuses on sixteenth-century South America, where the indigenous potato enabled Spanish conquerors to feed thousands of conscripted native people; eighteenth-century Europe, where the nutrition-packed potato brought about a population explosion; and today’s global world, where the potato is an essential food source but also the world’s most chemically-dependent crop. Where potatoes have been adopted as a staple food, social change has always followed. It may be “just” a humble vegetable, John Reader shows, yet the history of the potato has been anything but dull.

http://www.megaupload.com/?d=CJ036HKP

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell | Language: English | ISBN:0813804086 | 496 pages | Data: 2008 | PDF | 3 Mb


Description: An increased understanding of the developmental physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology during early growth, maturation, ripening, and postharvest conditions has improved technologies to maintain the shelf life and quality of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. Postharvest Biology and Technology of Fruits, Vegetables, and Flowers provides a comprehensive introduction to this subject, offering a firm grounding in the basic science and branching out into the technology and practical applications. An authoritative resource on the science and technology of the postharvest sector, this book surveys the body of knowledge with an emphasis on the recent advances in the field.
 
http://www.megaupload.com/?d=OUHHE3CP

Mass Spectrometry of Biological Materials

Mass Spectrometry of Biological Materials
Publisher: CRC | Language: English | ISBN:0824701577 | 488 pages | Data: 1998 | PDF | 14 Mb


Description: This timely Second Edition of an established resource covers the huge expansion of information that has taken place since the publication of the first edition;providing up-to-the-minute discussions on the application of mass spectrometry to the biological sciences. Shows how and why experiments are performed and furnishes details to facilitate the duplication of results! Completely rewritten and enlarged by internationally recognized scientists from industry and academia, Mass Spectrometry of Biological Materials, Second Edition reviews the ionization methods and instrumentation used in the analysis of biological materials introduces new instrumental technology that can solve fundamental problems in biology demonstrates techniques for isolating and identifying target molecules in complex mixtures that are often present in only trace amounts describes methods for characterizing proteins at very low levels of sample material analyzes noncovalent interactions and the use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange for tertiary structure determination explains the characterization of oligonucleotides and DNA supplies in-depth coverage of screening protein databases using data generated by mass spectrometry and more! Containing over 800 bibliographic citations and illustrations, Mass Spectrometry of Biological Materials, Second Edition is a useful guide for mass spectrometrists; analytical, medicinal, and protein chemists and biochemists; biotechnologists; enzymologists; molecular biologists; agricultural scientists; and graduate-level and continuing-education students in these disciplines.

http://www.megaupload.com/?d=0VHCZSFP

Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications

Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications 3rd edition
Wiley-Interscience | ISBN:0470033118 | Edition - 2007-11-16 | PDF | 502 pages | 10 MB

The latest edition of a highly successful textbook, Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition provides students with a complete overview of the principles, theories and key applications of modern mass spectrometry. All instrumental aspects of mass spectrometry are clearly and concisely described: sources, analysers and detectors. Tandem mass spectrometry is introduced early on and then developed in more detail in a later chapter. Emphasis is placed throughout the text on optimal utilisation conditions. Various fragmentation patterns are described together with analytical information that derives from the mass spectra.

http://rapidshare.com/files/253020113/Mass_Spectrometry_Principles_and_Applications_3rd_edition.rar

Plant-Bacteria Interactions: Strategies and Techniques to Promote Plant Growth

Iqbal Ahmad, John Pichtel, Shamsul Hayat «Plant-Bacteria Interactions: Strategies and Techniques to Promote Plant Growth»
Publisher: Wiley-VCH | Edition: 2008 | ISBN: 3527319018 | PDF | 330 pages | 3 Mb
 
Here, an extremely experienced team of authors from five different continents provides a timely review of progress in the use and exploitation of soil bacteria to improve crop and plant growth. They present novel ideas on how to grow better, more successful crops, in an environmentally sound way, making this invaluable reading for those working in the pharmaceutical, biotechnological and agricultural industries.

http://www.megaupload.com/?d=JP6L45VN

Mycotoxins in Fruits and Vegetables

R. Barkai-Golan, Nachman Paster «Mycotoxins in Fruits and Vegetables»
Publisher: Academic Press | Edition: 2008 | ISBN: 0123741262 | PDF | 408 pages | 2,62 Mb

Mycotoxins are toxins produced by aerobic, microscopic fungus under special conditions of moisture and temperature. They colonize in a variety of foods from harvest to the grocer. Mycotoxins have gained world wide interest in recent years with the revelation of the effect of these toxins on health. A current example is the presence of ochratoxin A, a human carcinogen and nephrotoxin, in wines. The increased concern about fruit safety has led to increased studies throughout the world and enhanced awareness for stringent regulations governing mycotoxin limits in food.
Presented in three defined sections, this is the first book to provide comprehensive analysis of the main mycotoxins contaminating fruits and vegetables and their derived products. The first section provides a safety evaluation of mycotoxins in fruits and vegetables, details regarding factors affecting mycotoxin production and diffusion in the fruit tissue, and recent methods for detection of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins produced by the fungi. The second part takes a critical look at the main individual mycotoxins and the third section focuses on approaches for prevention and control.
 
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Trees, Crops and Soil Fertility: Concepts and Research Methods

G. Schroth, F. L. Sinclair, «Trees, Crops and Soil Fertility: Concepts and Research Methods»
 
CABI Publishing | ISBN: 0851995934 | 2003 | PDF | 464 pages | 14.66 MB
 
 
Soil science benefits from the availability of a wide array of practicable methods. There are a number of very useful compendia in which sets of these methods are collected together to provide easy reference for the intending practitioner. The need for yet another handbook might therefore be questioned. This book, however, fulfils several needs that are not met in previous volumes.
 
 
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Biological Interactions Of Sulfur Compounds

Stephen C. Mitchell, «Biological Interactions Of Sulfur Compounds»
CRC Press | ISBN: 0748402454 | 1996 | PDF | 225 pages | 2.21 MB
 
This text focuses on the biological interactions of sulphur compounds which arise specifically from the presence of the sulphur atom within the molecule. The book opens with introductory chapters on the chemistry and biology of sulphur, before tackling the field by introducing compounds which share a common chemical combination. In general, following a description of the uses and impact upon the biological field, specific chemical group characteristics are discussed together with the biological activity and structure-activity relationships where known. The toxicity of such compounds, their consequences in biochemical and clinical terms, and their mechanisms of biological interaction are then addressed

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The Pesticide Detox: Towards a More Sustainable Agriculture

Jules N. Pretty, «The Pesticide Detox: Towards a More Sustainable Agriculture»
Earthscan | ISBN: 1844071421 | 2005 | PDF | 240 pages | 2.21 MB

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